Porn Culture

How Pornography Broke The Internet

Paige Young

Media Literacy

Outline

  1. Introduction: The Importance of Web Porn
  2. Feminism

– Print

– Media

  1. Introduction to Media Generated Porn

– The New Male Gaze

– Social Media

– Accessability

  1. Interactive Pornography

– Chat based

– Paid

  1. The Future of Pornography

– Virtual Reality Pornography

– Effects of VR vs Print or Online Photography

  1. Conclusion

 

“While web porn is different from other traditional forms of pornography, in that it uses multimedia, its importance derives from … [the anonymity of its consumption] (1).” Before multimedia and social media, porn was a tangible item that consumers had to purchase. If a consumer wanted to view porn prior to the days that included the internet, they either had to rent it from a video store, make a purchase from a video store, or had to tangibly buy a print magazine or video from an adult book store. Even if these purchases were not made a big deal, the fact remained that to consume pornography in their personal lives, they had to make a purchase in somewhat social setting. Human beings within the pages of traditional pornography are objectified and allow a gaze on the pages that cannot be questioned or confronted. No one can break this gaze set upon the human beings in the images, and because of this they are turned into objects to be looked at instead of human beings to be respected and interacted with. Since shifting from traditional media to new media, more distributed content is available to objectify human beings at a rapid pace. Since the amount of content is vastly greater within the internet, objectification would become even more normalized within society especially because the internet contains videos instead of just still-life imagery on paper.

“[The Internet] allows consumers to access pornography without opening themselves to the social condemnation that might [be attached to] the consumption of pornography (2).” Along with many other areas of pop culture, the internet is changing the nature of consumption of pornography (3). The way items are being purchased for almost every category of consumption has shifted to a digital platform. The internet allows some things to be viewed, and ‘cost free’ for the most part which wasn’t an option prior to the internet. Many viewers are either unaware or particularly not concerned that their computer is being tracked, watched by outside sources, or even the fact that their IP address is submitting personal information to public viewers. Although they may watch these videos or view these images ‘cost free,’ there is a cost still attached to the websites, and that is privacy, or the lack of privacy.

The internet is not the only way of viewing pornography, but “…cyberspace is widely associated with pornography, harassment and the rancid odour of rampant males…(4)”. Unfortunately males are the common gender that most studies focus on and conclude that they are the largest consumers of pornography and specifically online pornography. “The convenience and anonymity of the internet makes it easier for individuals to [view porn]. People who simply wouldn’t go into a sex shop to buy videos or scour their nearest red-light district looking for their hard-core magazine of choice [are now able to trial porn without social condemnation] (5).” The internet does lower the anxiety that comes along with purchasing such magazines and video. Because of the reduction of anxiety and a feeling of privacy that comes along with online pornography, it has normalized the viewing of pornography. “As the porn industry shifts from bookstores and magazines, to videos and internet, we see their profits multiply over the course of time (6).” However, this accessibility has a greater impact on individuals, as well as the objectification of women, than most anticipate.

Traditionally, porn was created for viewing in print, but as time has progressed, porn has shifted from print to screen, making it more accessible than ever before. The idea of porn isn’t new, however it’s becoming more accessible, and is beginning to be used in ways it was never used before. The video culture of porn has created a new area for porn to evolve and grow. Porn is no longer stuck in the category of naked portraiture, but has expanded to videos, quick films, imagery, live chatting, ‘sexting’, as well as many other categories. The effect this has on society is nothing short of substantial and has greatly affected the market of pornography.

 

FEMINISM THEORY

A main focus of feminism has been on women’s inequality in society specifically due to the roles they play within pornography and how the roles affect their image in society (7). Pornographic videos often show scenarios that do not exist in the everyday sexual encounter. “Porn is not a just a fantasy. Real life performers are having actual sex; contracting STDs-and the audience knows it,” said Michael Weinstein, President of AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF) (8). Prior the conversion of video production, stagnate images allowed people to only fantasize about these interactions with these models. Video chats (web chats), have also been introduced as a way to interact with people and create a different ‘pornographic’ experience than previous mediums had to offer (prints, one-way video only, non-personal). Compared to print pornography, video pornography offers imagery of real ‘live’ people, contracting real STD’s, and having sex with other actors/actresses. The audience is fully aware of these situations, however they are not influenced by these attributions of the medium.

Because of the objectification that pornography provides, images that are constantly being shared via social media platforms provide this objectivity that people have to fight against daily. In regards to just women, there are women out in society that are contributing to this glass ceiling by posting images of themselves nude or nearly nude to stay relevant in the conversation of pop culture. They claim this action is for the movement or progression of women because women ‘should be able to wear whatever they please.’ Unfortunately, at the end of the day, this way of thinking hurts the objectification of women because human beings, like all animals, will always have an inclination of sexual desire and action for reproduction purposes. However, it also still places women in the category of ‘sexual objects,’ which is the way porn is often viewed (people being reduced to sexual objects).

The intensity of the male gaze has shifted many times during the last century. The idea began while examining stagnate images, and since then videos, multimedia and ‘one way’ chat have been created and used within this platform. “People emulate actions, behaviors, clothing, hairstyles and other things they see in mainstream movies all the time-why would it be any different with porn? From Farah Fawcett hairdos in the ’70s to kids copying Jackass movie stunts today (9)”. The “male gaze,” has been a conversation in the category of porn via print medium, but since pornography has become so heavily mediated in the media, it takes this theory into further discussion.

“The idea of a “male gaze” was proposed by Laura Mulvey in 1975, and it continues to be a common approach to studying film. The term suggests that the way the camera moves encourages beliefs and emotional reactions to the characters looked at, shaping our identification with or distance from them (10).” The male gaze was evident enough in still images, but now it has shifted into something even deeper within video and even ‘chatroom’ encounters. The availability of porn and its’ different mediums has grown dramatically within the last decade. Aside from the male gaze, feminism also takes into consideration of the shift of definition of masculinity through these accessible multimedia videos/scenarios. “The significance of these sources of anxiety has been heightened by feminism … which has altered the way Western Heterosexuality has been performed (11).” Since viewing online pornography has become ‘the norm,’ it would make sense that the egotistical or definition of masculine may be altered upon viewing these scenarios within pornography. Most heterosexual encounters in video pornography show a dominance, typically provided by males. This may influence the way some viewers may believe they have to act during their real sexual encounters in life. This type of imagery wasn’t necessarily seen in traditional media, and because of new media, video scenarios and the availability of even amateur pornography streaming on the web, “the new millennium is shaping up as a decade of sleaze (12).”

“No discussion of these websites can ignore the attempts to devalue women in text and images presented … the sites objectify women, relegate them to means for satisfying [pathological] desire and present them as sources of financial reward (13).” Dominance and denigration are two areas of focus within the online pornography culture, which is how males in videos gain their masculinity and their dominance (14). This area of focus wasn’t as prevalent in still images as it is on the internet. The more pornography that exists within the internet, the more videos there are created that to create uniqueness must ‘take it to the next level.’ When discussing the website ‘SlutBus,” Ian Cook, research scientist at the Neuropsychiatric Institute and the Brain Research Institute at UCLA, mentions the derogatory text that is usually played along either these videos or advertisements, which is often a general narrative of these types of websites. “We get any slut we can into our bus . . . then we videotape them sucking cock and getting fucked! We Find ‘em, we fuck ‘em, then we dump ‘em. (15).” This type of verbiage doesn’t only degrade women as human beings, yet also pursues them as only objects, and disrupts the idea and definition of masculinity as well. “The pornography available on these sites, however, also intensifies the level of anxiety that is central to the performance of Western heterosexual masculinity (16).” Which introduces the question, does this alter the way men feel they need to live up to this definition of masculinity? Will they replicate these actions because that is what is shown as the predominant way to “be a man?” Since these actions and lines are caught in real-time with a video camera, it will allow people to place themselves within these scenarios more than a stand still image would allow. Objectification application in real life could be heavily influenced since the videos with this extreme content are constantly being added to the conversation.


SOCIAL MEDIA

In the twenty first century, websites used for social media began to become extremely popular, and with these platforms pornography began to appear. Websites like instagram, tumblr, and pinterest started to become popular within the last 5 to 10 years, and pornography grew beside it and also interlinked.  The ‘hashtags’ on instagram trending often include, “#girlswholikegirls, #girlswhokissgirls, #gaysex, #hotguys, #hotgirlskissing,” etc. The hashtag is used for a search engine within these platforms, and are a way to find dehumanizing content.

The difference from these platforms compared to designated pornographic websites are the amount of sharing that happens between ‘users.’ The content on these websites is easily accessible, shareable, and has little to no consequences (especially in the discussion of viruses on computers), compared to pornographic websites which have a negative connotation. However, users are aware yet not affected that their computers will leave a footprint based on what they view. “You leave digital footprints wherever you step in cyberspace, and it doesn’t take an electronic Sherlock Holmes to trace your path (17).”

“Pinterest generates enormous amounts of web traffic, and when users click on Pinterest, it translates into dollars for retailers and bloggers (18).” People can always see what a user ‘likes,’ or ‘repins,’ or in Instagram’s case, ‘regrams,’ but no one externally can see what is searched, just like a typical search engine (Google) on a private computer. The difference with these new platforms is the user doesn’t have to click on them or open up potentially virus-bound links to get the information. Just as Pinterest shows the predictability of a ‘perfect life,’ porn does this all in the same. So what if a user repins the perfection of porn onto their pinterest board? How about reviewing the idea that pornography, like an object, is able to be ‘pinned’ or ‘favored’ to a board, just as the other ‘objects’ and ‘ideas’ are working in the same manner? Social media platforms are also creating another element of easy objectification and separation between human, and sexual object.

Pinterest shows user’s “dream” house, “dream” meals, and is perfectly clean and predictable (19). Porn isn’t necessarily shocking to it’s viewers, or readers, but it’s very entirely predictable (20), however, life is not predictable or perfect. “The literature on effects of media sex and pornographic materials on adolescents basically comprises a large number of studies of sexual material and pornography carried in traditional media… which is typically television (21).”

Buerkel-Rothfuss and Strouse found that interaction of sexually aggressive and suggestive media was a significant factor on behavioral actions and attitudes for college students based on computer/internet interaction with pornography (22). Several other studies that include viewings of suggestive content from the channel content from MTV was “linked to premarital sexual relations evaluated these relations as less bad than did those exposed to shows with marital sexual relations (23), as well as a study done by Bryant and Rockwell that confirmed this theory more heavily in “R” rated films vs less adult [forward] content (24).

A study that took all of the previous studies into account, began to gather data and predict what the ‘new media’ or internet era could do to society, and individuals based on the accessibility that the internet and social media provides. “Theoretically, the unique aspects of internet pornography could intensify the socially undesirable effects of pornographic materials and make adolescents more susceptible to the influence of internet pornography (25). The study also provided insight to previous studies done that focused on the internets involvement with this new accessibility. Barak and Fisher examined attitudes towards women within the frame, as well as short-term effects of internet pornography, which resulted in no substantial negative attitude towards women (26). However, another study provided by Kalyanaraman and Sundar (studied a year later) showed that the higher exposure to these images online, increased the “dehumanizing effect and led to more acceptance to the violence of women (27).”

The first hypothesis of the study stated that those who viewed pornography more regularly would have a more positive outlook on premarital sex, which was supported in the results of the study (28). The second hypothesis was watching pornography online would also increase the amount of sexual behavior the user would interact in physically, which also was supported by the result of the study (29). Finally, the third hypothesis predicted that internet pornography exposure would positively correlate with permissive behavior, which was also supported in the result of the study (30). This study was done on internet pornography alone, which didn’t include today’s social media platforms, and the increasing technologies like VR that are coming to be new means of accessibility and communication.

The amount of pornography that has become available has grown within the last decade. “A vast amount of pornography exists … it is estimated that 12 percent of the internet is composed of pornography which is equivalent to 24.6 million websites (31). Again, this encourages the ease of pornography. Since there are more websites available with this content, it almost becomes normal, and reduces the human qualities of these people into categories instead of human beings. “Access to pornography has never been easier, and this is especially true due to creation of mobile smart phones (32).” Could it be the more pornography interaction people are allowed, the quicker the ‘models’ are reduced to sex objects or just ‘porn?’

The Economist reported that the web holds “700 – 800 million individual [non-affiliated] porn pages, three-fifths in America. PornHub, Mindgeek’s biggest tube, claims to have had nearly 80 billion video viewings last year, and more than 18 billion visits (33).” This means the content is endless and constantly being uploaded and added. “In terms of traffic and bandwidth, … [Mindgeek’s website produces] more than 100 visitors a day, consuming 1.5 terabits of data per second—enough to download 150 feature films (34).”

With all of these different ways of streaming pornography in new media, the content is constantly being added. This is one of the major differences in pornography in print vs new media. The content online is being added to daily with amatuer, professional and even pornography that maybe one of the participants is unaware of. When someone purchases traditional pornography, they don’t have an endless amount of it lying around, they have to purchase more. Whereas, in new media, the page refreshes to new content constantly. This changes the objectification level even more, because the scenarios are much more frequent than traditional media can offer.

 

OTHER ACCESSIBILITY MEDIUMS

Social media and the internet, are not the only means of communication in the 21st century. In fact, cell phones, which seem to be working more as mini computers than anything else, are also the most heavily used form of technology. “Sexting,” has been a topic of many parents and administrators in this new media era. “The ubiquity of cellular phones and internet access has brought about rapid change including significant increases in the ability to express and act on sexual interests quickly and before large audiences (35).

There have been many self inflicted deaths due to these instances because of those who post imagery or videos of themselves which unfortunately got circulated among the internet because of a leak via text to an untrusted source. Although the topic of sexting is different from the accessibility to internet pornography it still has a large impact on society and the production of a fast paced sharing society, which in reality is equivalent to social media sharing and platforms that make viewing and searching for pornography even easier than a Google search engine.

Although studies could be found that link the amount of porn vs the pressure to ‘sext,’ there could be some links from the pressure of society and people trying to obtain that ‘sexyness.’ Since social media and pornography have grown in some ways together, for those seeking attention or be classified as ‘attractive,’ it may heavily influence their need to reveal themselves and search for approval via text. However in the wrong hands these images could become viral and have the power to ruin reputation, or lives. Because there is a screen in between people, social media has a tendency to create isolation and desensitization, and sexting adds to this dehumanization even further.

With new media an entire idea is almost magnified. With traditional media, the reader either had to buy more magazines, books, videos and could seem pretty limiting to the amount of content that could be viewed in a day. With new media, there is text, messaging, online videos, live streaming, chatting, even some Netflix videos offered have pornography within them, so it seems that the content availability is endless. More content could only make the viewer seem more removed from what they are viewing. If this content isn’t just a magazine, or one video, but in fact millions of images, billions of newly added videos, thousands of text messages, than it seems this content is normalized, and it seems these people in these images or videos are just ends to a mean.

 

A NEW TYPE OF PORNOGRAPHY

“It has been said that the internet is well stocked with ‘adult’ entertainment and room for ‘adult’ behavior (36).” The Communications Decency act aimed to rid some of these provocative websites and crude materials, however was ‘expunged by the US Supreme Court as an unconstitutional curb on freedom of speech (37).’ Meantime, new types of pornography and experiences were coming to the internet; in ways that old media could never represent.

In the 21st century a new element was added to the internet experience, which was video chat. For users around the world this meant being able to talk, chat, or video with people existing all around the world. The progressive states of chat went from simply text to audio and then was able to form all of those elements together with the added element of the visual. Before visual elements were added, authorities were constantly on the lookout for adults talking to minors under disguise as someone younger, however their search was not limited to only these things.

“Thieves transfer funds from victims’ bank accounts to their own. Vandals send computer viruses to destroy computers. Pedophiles exchange child pornography with others or chat with minors, building their trust so they can set up meetings under false pretenses. These offenses represent merely a few of the crimes currently being committed on the Internet (38).” As the internet became more capable, the search for illegal crimes began to widen and grow in many different categories.

Not only is video pornography a very saturated market on the web, but video and text chat is saturated as well. From free to paid services, there are pornography websites that allow interaction. These websites allow users to ‘log in’ as a guest or registered email account to choose their ‘favorite’ female or male to have a video to video or one-way video (where the user cannot be seen, but the ‘actor or actress’ can be seen). The non-mainstream ideas of pornography have been embedded within new media, almost making them common or mainstream themselves. This new video interaction typically can have audio/video or can be discussed via text to the person streaming the video. The interactions can be conversational or demanding based (the user can tell the person streaming what they ‘want them to do to themselves’). This opens up an entirely different element to pornography culture that almost makes this experience much more personal, besides the fact these two individuals are separated by screens.

However, some of these interactive websites are currency based, so that the ‘actor or actress’ can make profit, for the website company as well as for themselves. This may be considered borderline prostitution, however, the element of the physical with the ‘customer’ is still lacking. If our technology continues to expand and grow, soon these video interactions could feel much more real than they are, which is where the idea of virtual reality in the category of pornography is relevant.

 

THE FUTURE OF PORNOGRAPHY

Linda Williams began to address virtual pornography ‘issues’ in the beginning years of the 2000s’. “In the epilogue to her seminal work on moving-image pornography, Hard Core: Power, Pleasure and the “Frenzy of the Visible,” Linda Williams asks, “what is the spectatorial experience of viewing and ‘interacting’ with sexual objects in a virtual cyberspace? (39).” She begins to recreate this idea of the virtual and sexual objects as if the viewer could see them in space, without being able to touch them, but giving viewers a sense of what a sexual virtual reality could look like. “The fundamental constituents of this experience include the embodied perception and active look/solicited gaze of the viewer/participant, a sense of trans-spatial disembodiment manifested in an avatar substituting as a digitized sexual prosthesis for the viewer/participant, and the decentralization of vision manifesting in proliferating selves (40).” There is already an element of ‘gaze’ that was discussed with speaking about existing pornography in old media, as well as video or imagery based pornography on the internet, but what about this level of ‘real’, that is introduced into a virtual reality space. Is this even more desensitized than in new media pornography?

“Although both men and women were recorded nude with relatively the same frequency, Linda Williams notes that, “while naked and semi-naked women perform many of [the] same tasks [as men], in their activities and gestures we see how the greater sexuality already culturally encoded in the woman’s body feeds into a new cinematic power exerted over her whole physical being.” Or as Foucault would later posit, “… power exerted over bodies in technology is rendered pleasurable through technology (41).” Williams based most of her research on adult computer games and pornography which looked at the idea of being able to change one’s demeanor within interaction (changing naughty to nice, or going ‘harder’ or more gently) (42).

“In Hard Core, Williams similarly remarks, “… I would argue that today’s ‘interactive’ sensation seekers do not really think they are actually immersed in the virtual worlds depicted. Their pleasure seems to lie elsewhere.”  This sense of “elsewhere” Williams suggests, a “vague intuitive zone” as Sartre might have called it, can be located in the register of the imaginary (43).” Williams discusses the location of the pain, the pleasure and other areas of sensory. This opens up an entirely different idea based on pornography, old media and new media. After studies based on this concept, and sensory targeted areas studied, could virtual reality have more of an effect on the brain and society because of the way our mind creates memories in a similar manner with a 3D platform vs a 2D platform? “…as a higher order active consciousness negotiates its body image in the wake of selective suspensions of actuality and the fantasmatic supports that procure illusions of visceral sexual activity, proprioception does the job of ensuring that the body maintains its motor-sensory awareness of space by responding accordingly to the external stimulus (44).”

 

CONCLUSION

The startling realization of this information is the point of view someone could take on about the world, or about the actions seen in pornography that could be applied to the real world. One would hope that if it was okay to use and abuse someone in a virtual reality simulation, that the same information or message would not be transferred over into a real life scenario. If technology continues to move forward, which it will, will our society be able to tell the virtual from the real, or the wrongs from the rights to maintain a stable society?

The ‘gaze’ has already become an issue within social media platforms, internet pornography, chat and visual sexual scenarios, it could only be expected that this gaze would continue to become more of an issue as technology becomes more realistic and easier to stare without confrontation. New media has many characteristics that traditional media was lacking. Endless content, daily added content, different levels of professionalism and ‘real’ are all elements that traditional media didn’t necessarily offer. The more content the viewer sees of the same subject the more it can only desensitize them from what they are watching. The more desensitized they are from what they are watching, the more they will objectify and see the people as objects that serve a means to an end.

Further research must be conducted to determine if new media has altered the perceptions of people in relation to traditional media. Most research on online pornography focused on the effects of constant use, however, never directly compared traditional media to new media. Going forward, more research would need to be conducted to determine the effects of new media in relation to old media, and the changes that Virtual Reality will have to the conversation. The amount of content will most likely not be reduced, and if anything will gain speed. Social media and the amount of content available has already desensitized a lot of topics of fear, pain and suffering to everyday viewers, it can only be assumed that pornography could also have this same impact with objectification and desensitization to the real world.

NOTES:

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  6. Cragin, Becca. “Teaching sexuality through media.” Feminist Teacher 25, no. 2-3 (2015): 169+. Academic OneFile (accessed September 14, 2016).
  7. “AHF on Porn/Condom Study: ‘Porn is Not Just A Fantasy. Performers are having actual sex; contracting STDs-and the audience knows it.’.” Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week, May 21, 2016, 150. Academic OneFile (accessed September 26, 2016).
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  9. “AHF on Porn/Condom Study: ‘Porn is Not Just A Fantasy. Performers are having actual sex; contracting STDs-and the audience knows it.‘ Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week, May 21, 2016, 150. Academic OneFile (accessed September 26, 2016).
  10. Cragin, Becca. “Teaching sexuality through media.” Feminist Teacher 25, no. 2-3 (2015): 169+. Academic OneFile (accessed September 14, 2016).
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  13. Cook, Ian. Western heterosexual masculinity, anxiety, and web porn. The Journal of Men’s studies (2016). Academic OneFile (accessed 26, 2016).
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  22. Strouse, J., & Buerkel-Rothfuss, N. Media Exposure and Sexual Attitudes and behaviors of College Students. 1987. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 13, 45-51 (1987). Academic OneFile (accessed October 21, 2016).
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  33. “Naked Capitalism.” The Economist. 2015. Accessed November 23, 2016. http://www.economist.com/news/international/21666114-internet-blew-porn-industrys-business-model-apart-its-response-holds-lessons.
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  35. Rollins, Joe. Sexting cyberchildren: gender, sexuality, and childhood in social media and law. Sexuality and Culture (2015). Acedemic OneFile. (Accessed September 26, 2016).
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